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Brackets are "bonded" or "glued" directly to your tooth and cover less area of the teeth, instead of putting bands on the teeth to hold the brackets in place. We use bonded brackets generally on all teeth, except the back molars.
These are thin bands of metal, carefully fitted to the tooth and then cemented in place. They give us a way to grasp and control each individual tooth. Bands are generally used on the molars.
This is the main wire that fits into the brackets or other attachments, on the outside of your teeth. This is fastened to your brackets by tiewires, or small plastic "ties". The archwire acts as a guide or track along which the teeth are to be moved.
The headgear fits into the large tube on the back molars.
These provide a force that helps teeth move, usually employing one arch or group of teeth against the other.
These are the funny little wires that fasten your archwire to the brackets. They are twisted, leaving a small "pigtail," or twisted wire, which is then tucked under the archwire.
Individual rubber rings, we sometimes call "ties".  These are used to tie the wires into the brackets and come in MANY colors!   You choose your colors at each appointment, as they are changed at each visit.